Burke Road Billabong Reserve

Management Plan

December 2013

Executive Summary
1 Introduction
 1.1 The Reserve
 1.2 Land status
 1.3 Management responsibility
 1.4 Relevant legislation
 1.5 Adjoining land
 1.6 Stakeholders
2 Existing conditions  
 2.1 Aerial photo
 2.2 Climate
 2.3 Geology
 2.4 Soil types
 2.5 Hydrology
 2.6 Vegetation
 2.7 Animals
 2.8 Infrastructure
 2.9 Current use of the reserve
3 Issues
 3.1 Strengths
 3.2 Weaknesses
 3.3 Opportunities
 3.4 Threats
4 Future directions
 4.1 Objectives
 4.2 Principles and approach
 4.3 Imperatives and priorities
 4.4 Vegetation
 4.5 Billabong management
 4.6 Animal management
 4.7 Access: facilitation and control
 4.8 Education
 4.9 Recreation capabilities
 4.10 Pollution
5 Implementation
 5.1 Priority management actions
 5.2 Work priorities 2014-2015
 5.3 Where and When
6 Review requirements
7 References

1 Location of the Reserve
2 Crown land parcel and adjoining VicRoads land
3 Aerial photography of the Reserve
4 EVC mapping
5 Aerial photography indicating vegetation zones
6 Image of weeds within the Reserve
7 Aerial photography indicating access
8 Timelines for work within the Reserve
1. Indigenous flora
2. Introduced flora
3. Rare and threatened flora
4. Local fauna
5. Rare and threatened fauna

Executive Summary

The Burke Road Billabong Reserve is an area of high ecological significance due to the presence of a senescent billabong, remnant river red gums and many species of rare and threatened flora and fauna.

The first Burke Road Billabong Management Plan was implemented between 2008 and 2013. Many of the aims of this plan were achieved and this plan carries the work forward from 2014 to 2016 The original aims were to ensure that the Reserve:
~ has viable and robust ecosystems
~ represents a significant vegetative remnant within a severely modified landscape
~ has valued educational and public relations roles for the natural environment
~ is used and appreciated by people without compromising the key services provided by the land

Weed species have been reducted and native vegetation increased. Opportunities for active and passive recreation have been increased by maintaining the internal path network and introducing a picnic area. Some interpretive signage has been introduced and this plan will extend signage to create greater appreciation by users of the Reserve.

The original Management Plan was developed in consultation with the Department of Environment and Primary Industries, and local residents. This plan will apply to the land for a period of 3 years, after which it will be fully reviewed and renewed. As part of implementation, the Committee will submit to the Department of Environment and Primary Industries successive 12 month work plans detailing the works to be undertaken..

The management actions to be completed over the period of this plan include:
~ The protection and enhancement of the billabong depression.
~ The control of high threat weeds.
~ The continued revegetation of the Reserve
~ Supplying publicity and education for people interested in the Reserve.

On behalf of the Committee, we look forward to working closely with relevant Government agencies and the local community to improve the ecological and recreational value of the Reserve.

Stanley Barker
Burke Road Billabong Committee of Management

1 Introduction

1.1 The Reserve
The Burke Road Billabong Reserve (the Reserve) is approximately 10 hectares of Crown land within the Municipality of Boroondara. The Reserve is Crown land under the management responsibility of the Burke Road Billabong Reserve Committee of Management Inc. (the Committee). The Reserve is located between Burke Road, the Eastern Freeway, Kew Golf Course and the Yarra River (see Figure 1).

The traditional owners of the area of the Reserve are the Wurundjeri people. The clans of the area were Wurundjeri-balluk & Wurundjeri-willam. At the Bolin-Bolin billabong, a few hundred meters upstream, was the site of an annual gathering of the Kulin Nation, a group encompassing many of the local indigenous clans (Yarrahealing, 2008). These meetings would take place every April/May involving over a thousand individuals (M. Woiwod pers. com.). It seems likely that many would have set up camp at the billabong within the Reserve. As the billabong began to fill after summer, it would have been a convenient source of eels, fish, and other aquatic creatures.

In 1835, British settlement of Melbourne had occurred and by 1845, land in the area surrounding the Reserve was bought from the Crown by William Oswin. Oswin is described as an 'agriculturalist', but evidence of fences on the site implies that he used the 279 acres to run cattle (McWilliam 1986). The next major change came in 1894 when the Kew Golf Club was established. This took over the land almost up to the edge of the billabong.

The area to the north-east, south, and west of the billabong has been cleared and used for agriculture. In addition, some of the land near Burke Road was part of the Kew tip and contains building rubble now overlain with various depths of soil.

The Reserve has been extensively disturbed over the years having been used for agricultural activities. Other disturbances include a trunk sewer construction on a NW-SE alignment across the western part of the Reserve and a sewer pump station overflow pipe constructed on a NNE/SSW alignment across the eastern part of the reserve.

Little to no work had been done to manage or control the site prior to the formation of the Burke Road Friends Group in 2007. The site was steadily degrading through inexorable invasion of exotic plants and animals, and through some inappropriate public uses.

A Boroondara site assessment (Lorimer, 2006) is the major reference for this document, supplemented by the plan prepared by the Friends of Burke Road Billabong (FBRB, 2008).

Figure 1: Location of Burke Road Billabong Reserve

1.2 Land status
The Reserve is Crown land known as Crown allotment 2038, Parish of Boroondara (see figure 2). The land was reserved on the 23 September 2008 for the conservation of an area of natural interest and public recreation. The original Reserve was approximately 3 hectares in size. A parcel of land (lot 1 TP834511 in Figure 2) was added to the Burke Road Billabong Reserve after transfer from VicRoads, The Reserve is managed by the Committee who were appointed by the Minister for Environment and Climate Change to manage the reserved land, excluding the Main Yarra Trail and Koonung Trail bike paths. The original Committee�s three year term expired in August 2011 and the current Committee was appointed by the Minister after an election.

Figure 2: Crown land parcel of the Reserve and adjoining land transferred from VicRoads

1.3 Management responsibility

Department of Environment and Primary Industries (DEPI)
DEPI acts as the land owner for the Reserve on behalf of the Crown. The DEPI also has a role in supporting the Committee of Management.

DEPI are currently the body responsible for the maintenance of the Main Yarra Trail which runs through the Reserve. The maintenance required includes mowing/slashing 1m either side of the path, and any track maintenance required.

Committee of Management
The Minister for Environment and Climate Change appointed the Committee as the delegated managers of the Reserve Committee in late 2011 to be delegated managers of the Reserve up to 24 September 2014.

Pursuant to Section 15 of the Crown Land (Reserves) Act 1978 (the Act), the Committee is responsible for managing, improving, maintaining and controlling the land for the purpose for which it was reserved. The powers given under the Act enable the committee to:
~ manage and develop the reserve
~ undertake financial transactions, including borrowing money (with the Victorian Treasurer's consent) and entering contracts
~ enter tenure arrangements, such as leasing and licensing, for part or all of the reserve, subject to Minister's approval
~ employ people
~ enforce regulations.

City of Boroondara
The Reserve is located within the municipality of the City of Boroondara. The local Council is responsible for administering the Planning and Environment Act 1978 which allows for the creation of zones and overlays over the Reserve. The existing planning controls applying to the Reserve include a Public Park and Recreation Zone, Environmental Significance Overlay (ESO2), Land Subject to Inundation Overlay (LSIO) and Significant Landscape Overlay (SLO2). The City of Boroondara is responsible for compliance with the provisions of the Planning and Environment Act 1978 through the planning permit process.

1.4 Relevant legislation

The following is an overview of the key legislation, frameworks and policies that directly affect and direct the management of the Reserve.

The Crown Land (Reserves) Act 1978 provides for the reservation of Crown land for a variety of public purposes, the appointment of committees of management to manage those reserves and for leasing and licensing of reserves for purposes approved by the Minister for Environment and Climate Change.

The Planning and Environment Act 1987 establishes State planning and land use processes including provisions for planning schemes for individual council areas. A planning scheme is a statutory document which sets out objectives, policies and provisions relating to the use, development, protection and conservation of land in the area to which it applies. A planning scheme regulates the use and development of land through planning provisions to achieve those objectives and policies. Every planning scheme includes the State Planning Policy Framework. This Framework consists of general principles for land use and development in Victoria and specific policies dealing with settlement, environment, housing, economic development, infrastructure, and particular uses and development. The Local Planning Policy Framework sets a local and regional strategic policy context for a municipality including Crown land. It comprises the Municipal Strategic Statement and specific local planning policies.

The City of Boroondara Planning Scheme sets out policies and controls for the use, development and protection of land. The strategic framework and directions for the future use of the municipalities are outlined in their Municipal Strategic Statements (MSS). The MSS states the strategic vision for the municipality and provides the rationale for the policies and planning controls that form part of the City of Boroondara Planning Scheme. It provides the strategic basis for the application of the zones, overlays and particular provisions in the planning scheme and decision making by the responsible authority.

Victoria's Native Vegetation Management - A Framework for Action 2002 establishes the strategic direction for the protection, enhancement and revegetation of native vegetation across Victoria. It establishes the primary goal for native vegetation management is to achieve, "A reversal, across the entire landscape, of the long term decline in the extent and quality of native vegetation, leading to a Net Gain." If native vegetation is proposed to be removed as part of a land use or development proposal, planning and responsible authorities should achieve a Net Gain outcome, as defined in the Framework. This is achieved firstly, as a priority, by avoiding adverse impacts, particularly native vegetation clearance; secondly, if impacts cannot be avoided, by minimising impacts through appropriate consideration in planning processes and expert input into project design or management; and thirdly, by identifying appropriate offset actions. The criteria for determining the appropriate response and offsets are contained within the Framework.

The Aboriginal Heritage Act 2006 (State) provides legislative protection for all Aboriginal cultural heritage sites, places and objects, with the involvement of Aboriginal people. Under the Act, coastal areas are considered to have high cultural heritage sensitivity and where works include high impact activities; a Cultural Heritage Management plan is required to be prepared. The Act recognises Aboriginal people as the "primary guardians, keepers and knowledge holders of Aboriginal cultural heritage" and establishes the Aboriginal Heritage Council of 11 traditional owners and Registered Aboriginal Parties (RAPs). RAPs play a lead role in administering the Act, including evaluating Cultural Heritage Management Plans and providing advice on applications for Cultural Heritage Permits.

The Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 provides the legal framework to conserve Victoria's native plants and animals. Its broad aim is to prevent the extinction of any more plants and animals and to ensure that native flora and fauna survive, flourish and retain their potential for evolutionary development in the wild.

The Environment Protection Act 1970 provides the legal framework by which environmental objectives, regulations and goals are established throughout the State for industry, commerce and the general public. The Act reflects the precautionary principle, the protection of intergenerational equity, the polluter pays principle, and the protection of biodiversity. It puts the responsibility for sound environmental management on Victorian businesses, communities and individuals. The Act aims to achieve greater environmental performance through shifting to collaboration and co-regulation as opposed to the traditional 'command and control'.

Australian Heritage Commission Act 1975 established the Australian Heritage Commission. The main role of the Commission is to advise the relevant Minister, on matters relating to the National Estate. This includes advice relating to actions identifying, conserving, improving and preserving the national estate. The National Estate consists of those places, natural and/or cultural, that have aesthetic, historic, scientific or social significance or other special value for future generations as well as for the present community.

The Wildlife Act 1975 was passed to establish procedures in order to promote the protection and conservation of wildlife, the prevention of taxa of wildlife from becoming extinct, the sustainable use of and access to wildlife and to prohibit and regulate the conduct of persons engaged in activities concerning or related to wildlife. Permits to keep wildlife are issued pursuant to this Act.

1.5 Adjoining land

Yarra River (Melbourne Water)
Under the provisions of the Water Industries Act 1994, Melbourne Water has management responsibility for the bed, soil and banks of any waterway, and any land within 20m from the waterway. Melbourne Water develops and implements management strategies to help maintain the bed and banks of the Yarra River to mitigate negative effects of flooding and improve stream health. It is responsible for floodplain management for the lower Yarra River and this billabong is an important feature of the natural floodplain system. Melbourne Water staff require access to the site for the maintenance of both the emergency overflow point for the Kew Pumping Station, and the sewer trunkline which traverses the site and crosses the Yarra River.

Kew Golf Club
Kew Golf Course adjoins the Reserve to the west. The primary aim of the golf club is to provide a quality course to its members and visitors; therefore there may be some negative environmental impacts on neighbouring land, e.g. flow of herbicides and fertilisers used on the course into neighbouring waterways.

Chris Cross Garden Centre
The garden centre is located on the south east side of the Reserve and is the main access point by car. The owner of the Chris Cross Garden Centre is a member of the Committee.

Chris Cross Garden Centre
The garden centre is located on the south east side of the Reserve and is the main access point by car. The owner of the Chris Cross Garden Centre is a member of the Committee. The title boundary between Chris Cross Garden Centre and the reserve is unmarked, being up to 50 metres west of the current fence line. The Committee has worked in this area with the consent of the owner of Chris Cross Garden Centre.

Yarra Flats
The site is located within the municipality of Boroondara, and Council manages the adjoining parklands to the east known as the Yarra Flats.

1.6 Stakeholders

The Wurundjeri people
The traditional owners of the area encompassing the Billabong were the Wurundjeri-balluk & Wurundjeri-willam clans, part of the Woiwurrung Tribe. Descendants of these clans and their current elders as well as other indigenous community groups will need to be consulted during the entire process of implementing the management plan.

Local community
The local community is a major stakeholder as the Yarra River and its adjacent areas are significant characteristics of Kew and neighbouring suburbs. Many local residents utilise the area for passive recreation such as dog walkers, joggers, bike riders and bird watchers. The Committee also hosts volunteer days in which local residents and interest groups can contribute to the management of the Reserve through revegetation and weed removal. The Reserve also presents an opportunity for local schools to become involved in the management of the area through educational planting days.

Bicycle Victoria
This self funded community organisation promotes the use of bikes and the construction and preservation of trails, paths in and around Melbourne. Bicycle Victoria has a strong interest in maintaining the Main Yarra Trail which passes through the Reserve.

2 Existing conditions

2.1 Aerial photography

Figure 3: Aerial photography of the Reserve, captured Jan 2009.

2.2 Climate
Hot, dry summers and moister cool winters are the expected norm. A few frosts occur each year. Snow falls are rare. Periods of lower than average rainfall tend to repeat every 7-10 years. Average yearly rainfall is 680mm, with April and October generally being the wetter months. Annual mean maximum temperature is 19.5°C with an annual mean minimum temperature of 9.6°C. Median maximum summer temperature is 25.9°C, with January and February the hottest months. The coolest months are June, July and August, with a median minimum temperature of 5.3°C for winter. Microclimates exist within the Reserve including the river valley floor where cold air builds creating "frost pockets". This produces a higher number of frosts in winter compared to areas of higher elevation in other sections of the Reserve.

2.3 Geology
The Reserve is situated on Quaternary alluvium sediments (fine sands, silts and clays) over bedrock of mudstones, siltstones and sandstones of lower Silurian age known as the Anderson Creek formation (VandenBerg, 1999). These sediments (known as the Heidelberg alluvial terraces) occupy the Yarra valley from the Chandler Highway to Templestowe, ranging in depth from 10 to 15 metres (Geol.Survey Victoria, 1967). The lower beds of the sediments may have been deposited in a lake formed when volcanic flows travelled down the Darebin creek and accumulated in the Yarra valley. When the lake drained, these lacustrine deposits were covered by normal flood plain deposits. Various small rejuvenations of the river system have produced a series of alluvial terraces with occasional cut-off meanders (billabongs). The lower terraces are currently part of the flood plain of the Yarra River.

2.4 Soil types
The alluvial soils are deep and relatively fertile. The surface is a light grey clay loam with only small amounts of gravel. Organic matter content is relatively high. Clay content increases with depth as the soil profile grades into a yellow brown mottled clay at a couple of hundred millimetres (CoM, 2009).
The soil is moderately well drained, but mottling indicates periods of waterlogging. Water holding capacity is moderate to low, but soil depth moderates this.
The growth rate of recently planted vegetation indicates that the soil is generally healthy and fertile.

2.5 Hydrology
The Yarra River runs along the northern boundary of the site. This forms part of the 242km that makes up the Yarra River which begins at the flanks of Mount Baw Baw and enters Port Phillip Bay at Newport.
The Billabong is located on the western edge of the current Reserve, with the majority located within VicRoads land. The Billabong forms part of a natural flood plain formed by periodic flooding and drying. The Yarra River water level generally sits at an elevation of 6m above sea level. The floodplain has an elevation of 9 -12m and the base of the billabong has an elevation of approximately 8m. It is a broad based depression and relatively shallow. Geomorphically it can be described as senescent.
The billabong is currently approximately one-third full with the last filling in June 2012. Although the billabong has historically flooded and dried, this cycle may not continue due to changes in the flow regimes of the Yarra River caused by the building of dams, water extraction and the construction of the Eastern Freeway.
The building of dams and extraction of water for agricultural purposes have reduced the water level in the Yarra River over the last century to reduce the flooding events causing inundation of the Billabong. The floodplain containing the billabong is drier than in the past, consequently, a shift to plant species adapted to drier conditions is occurring. The hydrology and drainage of the local area was also modified by the construction of the Eastern Freeway in the 1970's. The development greatly reduced the natural catchment of the billabong, diverting most overland flows previously flowing to the billabong (City of Boroondara's Urban Planning Group, 2001).
There was concern in the original Management Plan that flooding of the Billabong may leach farm chemicals into the Yarra River from old agricultural drums which have been found beside the billabong (Lorimer, 2006). The billabong has filled and dried twice since the last Management Plan and water sampling by Waterwatch did not indicate any problem.
The closest EPA monitoring site to the Billabong is on the Yarra River at the Chandler Highway, Kew; where records indicate the E. coli count to be quite variable and especially high after heavy rainfall events. Melbourne Water classifies water quality in the middle Yarra River valley as moderate to poor (Melbourne Water, website).

Despite being effected by agricultural and urban run-off and accumulation of all upstream activities, the Yarra River is in the healthiest condition it has been for over a century. This is due to clean-up efforts by various agencies and volunteer groups who take an active interest in the care of their local waterways. Improved stormwater management and reduced riverbank erosion is due to the implementation of strategies by State government agencies and local councils. (Melbourne Water, 2008)

2.6 Vegetation
There is substantial acacia regrowth to the north of the billabong. The banks of the Yarra River in the Reserve support a shrubby understorey of tree violet (Melicytus dentatus), prickly currant-bush (Corposma quadrifida) and hemp bush (Gynatrix pulchella). Approximately 100 hemp bushes have been recorded at this site. The only other site in the city of Boroondara with such a number of the locally endangered species is the Freeway Golf Course (Lorimer 2006).
Weeds have replaced most of the native ground flora in the Reserve. At the northern end of the Reserve is one native muttonwood tree (Myrcine. howittiana ex Rapanea), the remaining survivor of a previous copse of 11. Other muttonwood trees occur on the opposite side of the Yarra River.Two other plantings of M. howittiana were made in 2010.
During the prolonged inundation of the Billabong in 2005, much of the flora within the billabong did not survive, including an indigenous prickly currant-bush (C. quadrifida) situated on the north-west bank of the Billabong. River red gums (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) and silver wattle (Acacia dealbata) appeared unaffected (Lorimer 2006).). In later floodings (2010 � 12), silver wattle (Acacia dealbata) which had grown in the dry billabong died.
The Reserve contains viable populations of numerous flora and fauna species that have been listed as threatened or endangered in the Boroondara locality and throughout the State of Victoria (Department of Sustainability and Environment, 2005). A recent assessment of the Reserve (Lorimer 2006) describes these. This assessment further recognises two relatively intact Ecological Vegetation Classes (EVCs): Floodplain Riparian Woodland and Floodplain Wetland Aggregate. EVC mapping provided by the DEPI indicates that only Floodplain Riparian Woodland occurs within the boundary of the Reserve, and the Floodplain Wetland Aggregate occurs within VicRoads land (See figure 4).

Figure 4: EVC mapping based on 2005 EVCs.

EVC 172: Floodplain Wetland Aggregate
This is the Floodplain related complex which is further classified into seven individual EVC units. It includes an overstorey of river red gums and a ground flora of sedges and rushes including tall sedge (Carex appressa) and gentle juncus (Juncus amabilis) (Lorimer 2006). In its current dry state, the bed of the billabong has been infested by weeds (eg spear thistle (Cirsium vulgare) ). When flooded, the billabong supports aquatic vegetation, including water ribbons (Triglochin procera) (Lorimer 2006).
There have been seven flooding events since 2010 which have filled or refilled the billabong. Work done by the Committee in 2012 raised the �full� level of the billabong by approximately 600mm. The billabong dried again in December 2013.

EVC 56: Floodplain Riparian Woodland
Floodplain Riparian Woodland occurs within the billabong and land to the north, east and north-west of the billabong. Lorimers assessment found twenty five indigenous plant species and fifty eight introduced plant species (see Appendix 1 and Appendix 2). There are large trees in this area, some up to 1.45m in trunk diameter.
The overstorey consists mainly of river red gums and silver wattle. The understorey has fewer indigenous plants and is dominated by exotic species. There are some native shrubs including tree violet. Introduced groundcovers in this zone include wandering trad (Tradescantia fluminensis) and cleavers (Galium aparine) .

Pastoral Woodland
The Pastoral Woodland to the south and south-west of the billabong is a man made vegetative grouping dominated by kikuyu grass. It has only patchy regrowth of native trees, augmented by some planted eucalypts in the southeast. Acacias are common and support the locally vulnerable grey mistletoe (Amyema quandang) . There are very few indigenous shrubs. Blackberry (Rubus fruticosus agg) is the common understorey. Weeds dominate the ground flora, however it contains at least one dozen native pepper-cress (Lepidium pseudohyssopifolium) , which is listed as poorly known in Victoria (DSE 2005). Much of this species is found growing among blackberry.
The pastoral woodland was observed to be habitat for tiger snakes (Notechis scutatus) , and the common blue-tongued lizard (Tiliqua scincoids) . It is also likely to provide habitat for a number of other native fauna species (Lorimer, 2006). A common wombat (Vombatus ursinus) was observed in 2010 and an eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) intermittently since 2011.
The area contains three remnant river red gums within the Reserve, and a further eleven occurring within the adjoining land transferred from VicRoads that appear to have survived the previous land clearing practices. They occur on the banks of the billabong and the banks of the Yarra River and are marked with blue crosses on figure 5.

Figure 5: Aerial photograph of Burke Road Billabong Reserve showing vegetation zones and mature river red gums (as in Lorimer, 2006)

Rare and threatened
The Reserve contains a number of rare and threatened species which are listed in Appendix 3. These species are an indicator of the previous condition of the reserve and give further evidence of the historically mapped EVC units. For example, the scrub nettle (Urtica incisa) is known to occur within EVC 56 Floodplain Riparian Woodland.

Invasive species
Throughout the Reserve, weeds, particularly low growing species, smother the ground flora. Woody weeds are effectively competing with indigenous shrubs and small trees. It is estimated that invasive species in some section of the reserve cover as much as 50% of the area. Northward from the billabong to the Yarra River bank, the original woodland was once cleared but now has a dense covering of silver wattle. The understorey is almost entirely composed of weeds, dominated by a dense carpet of wandering trad (Figure 6).

Figure 6: Weeds within the Reserve
Apart from the acacia growth north of the billabong, the banks of the Yarra River have good indigenous tree canopy cover, but the native ground flora has mostly been replaced by invasive weeds (as in all other occurrences of this EVC in Boroondara).
The 2005 flooding event of the billabong killed large expanses of the wandering trad, however, other weeds such as hawthorn (Crataegus monogyna) and willow (Salix fragilis) appeared unaffected and still exist in this area.
South and west of the billabong in the area referred to as 'pastoral woodland' there has been patchy regrowth of native trees (principally acacias), and the few indigenous shrubs in existence, appear well outnumbered by blackberry (Rubus fruticosus). The ground flora is predominantly invasive species. Chilean needle grass (Nassella neesiana) is a concern.

2.7 Animals

Native animals
A number of locally significant animal species have been recorded on the Reserve. These include a number of frogs and birds that are listed as vulnerable or endangered in Boroondara (Lorimer, 2006). ). A common wombat (Vombatus ursinis) was observed at the reserve in 2010 and an eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus) has been observed intermittently since 2011. A small colony of Gould�s wattled bats (Chalinolobus gouldii) has taken up residence in artificial roosts and is being researched under Wildlife permit 10006003 and 10007034.A full listing of species can be found in Appendix 4.

Non-native animals
Non-native species recorded at this site are listed in the following table:
Table 1: Introduced fauna recorded at Burke Rd Billabong
Mammals Birds Fish
Black rat
Rattus rattus
Spotted turtle-dove
Streptopelia chinensis
European carp
Cyprinus carpio
Red fox
Vulpes vulpes
Common blackbird
Turdus merula
Perca fluviatilis
  Indian mynah
Acridotheres tristis

Of the above species only two are considered significant threats, the red fox and European carp. The red fox is known to prey on many indigenous species and has been implicated in the transmission of disease to native fauna. The red fox may also spread weeds, such as blackberry and boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera) in their faeces (NRE, 1997). It is virtually impossible to eradicate foxes from urban parklands in Melbourne because they are so widely spread through the suburbs. Any foxes removed from the site are rapidly replaced with another from the floating population that is continually passing through.
European carp causes turbidity, prey on native species and compete for resources with native fauna. Lorimer (2006) indicates that neither carp nor redfin have been recorded since 1979. However, there is evidence to the contrary with reports of European carp being found in the billabong and the nearby Yarra River, as recently as March 2008 (S Barker pers. com.).
The native bird species, bell miner (Manorina melanophrys) is also considered a threat. This species is out of ecological balance and is evicting birds such as small insectivores. This in turn represents a threat to the health of the river red gums (Temby, 2003).

2.8 Infrastructure
Bicycle paths
The Main Yarra Trail traverses the north of the subject site running east-west. It then continues north and crosses the Yarra River (See figure 6). It is near this point that the trail joins with the Koonung Creek Trail which continues east under the Eastern Freeway. The bicycle trails are used frequently by commuters travelling to and from work, and for recreational use.

Entrance to the reserve is via the Main Yarra Trail, and the Chris Cross Garden centre. The Yarra River to the north and Kew Golf Club to the south limit entry from other directions. There is currently no vehicular entry to the subject site, other than the maintenance vehicles used by VicRoads for track maintenance via the adjoining Council land known as Yarra Flats. Entrance to the site is restricted to pedestrians and bike riders.
The entrance areas have been designated Entrance A (trail down from Chris Cross Garden Centre and associated high ground), Entrance B (intersection of Main Yarra Trail and Koonung Creek Trail) and Entrance C (Main Yarra Trail near Kew Golf Club boundary). These entrances are highlighted in figure 7.

Figure 7: Bicycle tracks and access to the Reserve.

2.9 Current use of reserve
The Reserve is mainly utilised by commuters on the Main Yarra Trail. This type of use does not impact on the reserve itself as riders do not generally leave the trail. There have been dirt bike riders who enter the site from the Main Yarra Trail, then create their own tracks within the reserve. This type of activity destroys native vegetation, and increases erosion as the tracks expose bare soil.
The Reserve is also utilised by the general public and surrounding land owners for both active and passive recreation activities. These include: dog walking and exercising along the Main Yarra Trail, bird watching and enjoying the natural environment of the billabong. More recently, the Reserve has been utilised by lecturers from RMIT to highlight land management techniques to students.

3 Issues

3.1 Strengths
Due to the isolated nature of the Reserve, a number of high quality remnant and newly constructed assets must be protected to ensure the future ecological health of the reserve. These include:
~ A senescent billabong
~ A healthy canopy layer of remnant river red gums and acacia sp.
~ Rare species of flora and fauna.
~ A significant piece of the ecological corridor extending along the Yarra River.
~ The internal path network.

3.2 Weaknesses
Due to various reasons such as inappropriate land practices and development of the surrounding area, there are a number of conditions within the Reserve that present management challenges. These include:
~ An understorey of low habitat quality for native fauna, currently dominated by weed species.
~ A loss of mature vegetation.
~ Accumulated debris.
~ Possible pesticide contamination.
~ A change in river hydrology causing reduced flooding events in the billabong.
~ The lack of a Reserve profile has produced inappropriate expectations in some users.
~ Past management is not an adequate match for its high ecological value.

3.3 Opportunities
The Reserve presents many opportunities to increase both the ecological and recreational values of the reserve. These include:
~ Increasing visitor rates due to the high number of cyclists utilising the Main Yarra Trail.
~ Increasing passive recreation such as walking and bird watching.
~ Picnicking in some of the flat grassed areas.
~ Community education - via signs and noticeboards.
~ Formal education - via school and tertiary institutions utilising the Reserve for field work.
~ Natural resource management research through surveys.
~ The presence of rare or threatened plant species provides a seed source for local revegetation projects.

3.4 Threats
There are a number of issues within the Reserve that threaten the objectives of the management plan. These must be identified and considered in any strategy relating to the land. The threats include:
~ The limited hydrologic future of the billabong which may cause a change in EVC and threaten the habitat value of threatened flora and fauna.
~ Invasive species dominating vegetative succession and reducing diversity.
~ Competing recreational uses such as:
    *Off-track bicycle activities and conservation.
    *Dog walkers and the 'bicycle highway' on the Main Yarra Trail.
~ Limited resources to supply basic management needs such as ongoing weed removal and maintenance.
~ Increased pressure on green spaces due to population growth.
~ Predation on native faunal populations by invasive and domestic animals.
~ Climate change threatening the habitat value of the area.

4 Future directions

4.1 Objectives
The Committee has two primary objectives for the Reserve:
1. Enhancing the natural values by:
   1.1. Conserving and enhancing the indigenous character and natural values of the billabong.
   1.2. Consolidating its ecological integrity in the context of the Yarra River corridor.
   1.3. Improving habitat quality by re-establishing indigenous vegetation through weed control and revegetation.
2. To balance visitor use and ecological health by promoting community involvement in the environmental management of the Reserve.

4.2 Principles/approach
To achieve the objectives above, the Committee will implement the plan with a focus on the following principles and approaches:
~ Active management is required to bring the Reserve to an ecologically healthy state.
~ Community and school involvement should be encouraged through planting and conservation days.
~ Recreational use should be encouraged by provision of better information and accessibility.
~ Ecosystem health should not be compromised by public use.
~ Areas of high ecological or recreational quality should be protected first.
~ Research and educational activities should be encouraged. (This will also mean that management activities will be regarded as experimental and documented accordingly.)
~ Management activities should be judiciously sequenced in terms of:
    *Seasonal appropriateness.
    *Starting with high profile and critical areas.
    *Radiating out from one or two priority areas.
    *Consolidate (and evaluate) before further radiation.
~ Internal access should be maintained for servicing and management equipment.
~ Management approaches should be routinely reviewed (via monitoring) to improve the quality of results.
~ External funding and other resources will be required.

4.3 Imperatives and priorities
As a result of improvements in the ecological health of the reserve over the term of the previous plan, the Committee will focus on the following:
~ Protecting and enhancing the bed and banks of the billabong by removing invasive species and revegetating with locally indigenous species.
~ Controlling high threat weeds across the entire Reserve through a range of methods including chemical application and mechanical removal.
~ Restoration of a strategic "beachhead" area from which to steadily radiate.
~ Increasing publicity and education for visitors through the installation of signage.

4.4 Vegetation management
The primary objective in vegetation management within the Reserve is to increase the indigenous vegetation cover, and reduce the invasive species cover. The plant population is currently dominated by understorey weeds. Our role is to improve the opportunity for native vegetation growth and limit the opportunity for weed growth.
Invasive species
Weeds of greatest concern are boneseed (Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp monilifera), bitou bush , and chilean needle grass (Nasella neesiana) (See Table 2).
Additional species requiring control are blackberry, hawthorn, madeira winter cherry (Solanum pseudocapsicum), moth vine (Araujia sericifera), (Prunus sp.), sweet pittosporum (Pittosporum undulatum), and wandering trad. The latter is particularly verdant. Large expanses of wandering trad, obliterated with the 2005 flooding, have recolonised vigorously (See figure 7).
Removal of small infestations will be a priority to prevent the introduction of new weeds to the Reserve. Weed control in the billabong is of special concern if future flooding events do not occur.
Weed removal is a slow and expensive process. It will take many years to make significant impact. A judicious tactical approach is essential. Initial emphasis will be on declared weeds and high-impact species. The main species of concern are listed in Table 2 below.

Table 2. Pest plants control priorities
Common Name Scientific Name Priority Weed of Nat.
African boxthorn Lycium ferocissimum High NoN
Bitou bush Chrysanthemoides monilifera High YesN
Black bindweed Fallopia convolvulus Moderate NoY
Blackberry Rubus fruticosus agg. Moderate YesY
Boneseed Chrysanthemoides monilifera ssp monilifera High YesN
Box elder Acer negundo Moderate NoY
Chilean needle grass Nasella neesiana. High YesY
Cleavers Galium aparine Moderate NoY
Couch Cynodon dactylon Moderate NoY
Crack willow Salix fragilis Moderate YesY
Gorse Ulex europaeus High YesN
Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna Moderate NoY
Madeira winter cherry Solanum pseudocapsicum Moderate NoY
Pampas lily-of-the-valley Sapichroa origanifolia Moderate NoY
Prunus Prunus sp. Moderate NoY
Sweet pittosporum Pittosperum undulatum Moderate NoY
Wandering trad Tradescantia fluminensis Moderate NoY
White bladder-flower Araujia sericifera Moderate NoY
(Based on Lorimer, 2006)

While the preferred method of weed control is mechanical removal (digging-out or slashing), chemical control will be used as required. Where it is used, herbicide application will match the location and target species. Methods of herbicide use of lesser environmental impact, such as cut and paint, will be used where possible. Weed control operations will be monitored, evaluated and reported to gain improved management systems.

Protection of rare and endangered vegetation
As the ecological health of the Reserve is increased through weed removal and revegetation, it is expected that the populations of rare and threatened species will increase through natural regeneration. In the event that natural regeneration does not occur, revegetation of these species, using locally sourced seed, will be investigated.
The Committee will undertake period surveys to ensure the location of rare and threatened species is accurately documented. This may be undertaken on community working bees, and with the assistance of RMIT students during field work days.

Re-establishment of indigenous understorey is the essence of objective 1 of this plan. Habitat creation will help to buffer and link the fragmented, isolated and diminishing habitat patches that remain along the Yarra River. This includes the control of pest plants, revegetation with indigenous plants and the installation of artificial habitat. Habitat creation has a vital role to play in buffering sites from incompatible adjacent land uses and facilitating the dispersion of native animals (Gilbert & Anderson, 2003).
Regeneration of indigenous plants by selective weed control is an important part of the approach. Revegetation with understorey plants and ground-covers will be undertaken in conjunction with weed removal. Initial emphasis will be on species listed as 'flora of special significance' in the site assessment (Lorimer, 2006). Plant stock will be sourced from the Reserve, or from nearby. Plantings and stock sources will be rigorously documented.
Removing weeds and revegetating in a mosaic pattern will preserve established fauna habitats in weedy vegetation. When the control of weed species is undertaken, some of the woody weed species will be left as habitat for small animals until suitable indigenous vegetation is established.

4.5 Billabong management
Billabong status issues identified in Lorimer (2006) included a lack of aquatic fauna and possible poor water quality due to pollution. The main contemporary issues include infestation by weeds, the lack of connection to the nearby river and floodplain, and the potential for physical disturbance (especially by off-trail cyclists).
The continuing duration of low rainfall and the possibility of the climate changing to a more arid phase, will have significant consequences for the vegetative succession within the zone of the billabong. The question for the management plan is whether to attempt artificially recreating the flooding cycle, or let succession to a drier vegetation form proceed.
Occasional filling of the Billabong would attract water birds, frogs and invertebrates. Research is needed to evaluate current expectation for any "natural" re-flooding of the billabong. Research is also needed on what options are available to manage a drying billabong system. If the flooding does reoccur (or indeed is artificially restored) the flooding and drying cycles would:
~ provide triggers for plant germination and animal breeding cycles
~ supply a wider range of ecological niches and habitats to allow for maximum biodiversity
~ allow flora and fauna that require different conditions to maintain a viable presence on the site
~ help to exclude weeds from the billabong zone
~ raise the aesthetic and educational values of the Reserve

4.6 Animal management
Vermin control
The Reserve is within a highly urbanised area. Implementing improvements to native species habitat to encourage them to return to the site may also encourage invasion by predatory feral and domestic animals. Although eradication of pest animals in an urban environment is improbable, habitat favoured by pest animals will be monitored, and control measures implemented as necessary.
Infestations of bees and wasps are often a problem in shelter and nest sites. These pests will be controlled to avoid such, and also limit the potential of injury to park users by bees or wasps (City of Boroondara's Planning Group, 2001).

Encouragement of local native species
Re-building of native habitat and the provision of artificial habitat (such as nest boxes) are the key stratagem. Fallen trees and limbs will be utilised as habitat. Fauna surveys will be encouraged to assess use.
There is a lack of data on fauna species present in the Reserve with the latest observations being recorded in 2005 and 2013. Data has been recorded at the Atlas of Living Australia (www.ala.org.au/). Surveys by students and friends groups will be encouraged. Enlisting the assistance of the local community in reporting fauna sightings is regarded as important.
Native birds and mammals frequently come into urban areas to feed from native trees but are unable to breed due to lack of sufficient nesting tree hollows. The Melbourne Wildlife Sanctuary at LaTrobe University has designed various nesting boxes which are species-specific and designed to exclude predator species. Bat boxes have been erected at Wilson Reserve 5km downstream from the Reserve and are monitored regularly. Ten bat tubes have already been installed in this Reserve (October 2008). Occupancy is checked monthly. Other species that use nest boxes and were recorded in previous surveys as inhabitants of the Reserve include parrots and possums (La Trobe University 2008 and Lorimer 2006).

4.7 Access: facilitation and control
Signs and information boards have been erected at the entrance points to the Reserve to explain the revegetation program. Picnic facilities have been installed near this entry point for the amenity of visitors. At present the only area available for visitors to the Reserve to park vehicles is at the Garden Centre car park. The owner of the garden centre allows visitors to park here. However, should visitor numbers increase, alternate parking will have to be considered.
Works which have been undertaken to facilitate access include:
Entrance A (adjacent to Garden Centre):
~ Installation of signs.
~ Installation of picnic facilities in the grassy area just below garden centre.
~ Revegetation to enhance aesthetics of area.
These works will be maintained and enhanced.
Entrance B (Main Yarra/Koonung Creek Trails adjacent to Burke Road Bridge):
~ Signs have been installed (tied in with existing Main Yarra Trail signs).
~ Weed control in line with overall weed management plan to create cared-for appearance at the major entry point for casual users.
Entrance C (Main Yarra Trail adjacent to Eastern Freeway):
~ Signs have been installed (tied in with existing Main Yarra Trail signs).

4.8 Education
Simple informative and educational messages need to deal with the following issues:
~ What is a billabong?
~ The value of a billabong
~ Natural cycles
~ Flora and fauna
~ Ecological restoration
~ Looking after billabongs/waterways
~ Site history
~ How to become involved

Information boards
Two information boards have been installed at the north and south entry points. They provide information on the reserve and Committee of Management, revegetation program, tracks within the area and reserve, and information on snakes.
The information boards will be maintained and enhanced. Future signboards will provide information on the billabong and indigenous plants.

4.9 Recreation capabilities
Recreational use of the site must be balanced with the ecological restoration goal. Some informal paths should be maintained for recreational use; however, the destruction of vegetation to create new paths and bike paths is undesirable. Inappropriate public uses will be discouraged.
Maintenance of shared paths through the reserve are the responsibility of other authorities, however, the restoration work should not encroach on the formal paths or 1 metre either side. Restoration work will seek to enhance the amenity of the paths for all users; pedestrians, joggers or cyclists.
The site has great potential for passive environmental appreciation and enjoyment. Picnic facilities and information boards are expected to encourage more families, bushwalkers, bird watchers, etc to the Reserve.
It is not intended that rubbish bins be provided. Dogs must be on-lead at all times.
There are a number of informal tracks on the site, many of them created by off-trail cyclists. They have potential for vegetation destruction, channelling of water flows, and soil erosion. At present the impact is relatively small, but it needs regular review of the situation.

4.10 Pollution
The eastern section of the Reserve was once a council rubbish dump. There is a considerable quantity of surface debris for collection and removal. The dumping was thought to involve mainly clean fill (Barker pers. com.) but a better indication of what the soil contains is needed to check for any contamination. Testing might also be done in other key areas such as around the sewerage overflow point at the northern part of the Reserve and also within the base of the billabong. If any contaminates are about, their accumulation is expected in the base of the ephemeral billabong. Lorimer (2006) recorded the presence of an algal bloom in the billabong, as well as dumped chemical drums as evidence of excess nutrients entering the billabong.

5 Implementation

The Committee will undertake land management in consultation with government agencies and community organisations to determine the most appropriate actions.
5.1 Priority management actions
Table 3: Priority Management Actions
Management issue Management aim Management action Priority Responsible Body
Invasive plant species Control weeds to allow recruitment of indigenous vegetation. Prioritise weeds and implement recommended controls. High CoM
Melbourne Water
Lack of billabong replenishment Recreate flooding/ drying cycles to promote conditions that allow for maximum biodiversity on the site. Investigate likelihood of natural re-flooding events
Research possible effects of artificially flooding the billabong.
High CoM
Melbourne Water
Physical disturbance in riparian zone of billabong Reduce the possibility of physical disturbance. Educate with signs and information boards.
Install strategic fencing.
Med CoM
Adjoining land managers
Lack of information and direction at site entrances Protect ecological values. Enhance visitor use of site through education and signage. Entrance A:
Install welcome signs and interpretive display.
Build picnic facilities.
Continue revegetation to enhance aesthetics of area.
Entrance B:
Install additional signs.
Give priority to weed control to optimise impact on casual visitors.
Entrance C:
Install additional signs.
Med CoM
Lack of fauna data Set up long term fauna monitoring with a database for future management decisions. Collect historical data on fauna surveys for the last 10 years.
Begin ongoing surveying.
Med CoM
Lack of native species habitat Create fauna habitat to reduce fragmentation of Yarra River wildlife corridor. Installation of nest boxes.
Weed removal and revegetation.
Retain some woody weeds.
High CoM
Inappropriate use of site by visitors Create spaces for recreational use within areas of low ecological significance. Create a picnic and recreation area.
Maintain some informal paths.
Minimise any additional off-track activity.
Install signs indicating behaviour standards.
Medium CoM

Potential grant sources include DEPI, Melbourne Water, City of Boroondara and the Landcare Program, Port Phillip and Westernport Catchment Management Authority, Australian Government and the Department of Planning and Community Development.

Ongoing investigations/monitoring and further studies
As described above, the results of any research done on the Reserve, and the evaluation of any current management actions will determine future management practices. Fauna data will be recorded in the Atlas of Living Australia (http://www.ala.org.au/)

5.2 Work priorities 2014/2015
Focus areas/activities
~ NE corner and along bicycle path (adjacent to river).
~ Billabong
~ Destruction of those weeds with high risk of expansion.
~ Signs and information boards for publicity and education


Establishment of a strategic "beachhead" to radiate from
~ The entrance to the area from Chris Cross Garden Centre and Koonung Bike path.
~ Bat tubes installed in this area will be maintained.
~ In addition to natural recruitment of acacia species, prickly current-bush and tree violet, 1,000 extra plants per annum will be needed for revegetation.
~ Picnic area to be maintained and enhanced.
~ Strategic weeding along bicycle path adjacent to Yarra River
~ Annual weeding
~ Soil mapping
~ Topographic survey

Control high threat weeds across the entire Reserve
~ Chilean needle grass,
~ Moth vine
~ Blackberry

Signs installed at the garden-centre-track/bike-path junction, and to the west of the billabong, detailing the history, flora and fauna, and management of the billabong will be maintained and enhanced

5.3 Where and when
~ Picnic area � The western bank of the picnic area has some recent planting of ground covers and some older native hemp bush. These will be supplemented with more ground cover and sub-shrubs. The �lawn� of both the main and eastern picnic areas will be mowed regularly. Some more �pretty� shrubs will be planted. The main weeds in this area are angled onion, soursop and pampas lily of the valley. Spraying is probably the best treatment for these weeds.
~ 2008 area � the area below the picnic area will be weeded to enhance the plantings and provide an example of best practice.
~ Around the billabong and north of the Main Yarra trail � some revegetation has taken place in these areas, with both sub canopy and ground cover plants being planted. Areas with no reveg. work will be slashed and/or sprayed, areas with some reveg. will be slashed between the plantings and hand weeded around the plants.
~ Woodland � areas around mature or maturing gums will be mulched and planted with grasses, the open areas will be slashed to give an open view, but maintaining about 100mm of grass height to discourage mynahs and public usage. Tracks will be maintained with regular mowing of the verges to about 25mm height.
~ Golf course triangle � little work has been done in this area and it has the major infestation of blackberries, but is the preferred area by the kangaroo. Blackberries will be slashed and sprayed over the next 15 months and the grass slashed to about 100mm. The RMIT area next to the trail will be slashed to a low level between plantings.
~ Path verge � will be maintained on the same basis as the picnic area. .

Figure 8: Timelines for work within the Reserve

6 Review requirements

An annual report will be provided to DEPI each March which will list work completed during the previous 12 months and any information gathered as part of regular monitoring.

7 References

City of Boroondara's Urban Planning Group, (2001) Willsmere-Chandler Park Management Plan, City of Boroondara, Victoria

Gilbert, O L. and Anderson, P., (2003) Habitat Creation and Repair, Oxford University Press, New York.

Lorimer, G., (2006) Inventory and Assessment of Indigenous Flora and Fauna in Boroondara Site 6 - Burke Road Billabong, City of Boroondara, Camberwell, Victoria viewed 28 August 2008

Bureau of Meteorology, (2008)Climate. viewed September 2008

COM (2009) Burke Road Billabong Committee of Management initial exploration of site. Unpublished

Department of Sustainability and Environment, (2005) Advisory List of Rare or Threatened Plants in Victoria - 2005. Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment, East Melbourne

Geol. Survey Victoria (1967) Geology of the Melbourne District Victoria. Bulletin No. 59. Mines Department Melbourne. Victoria

Lorimer, G., (2006) Inventory and Assessment of Indigenous Flora and Fauna in Boroondara Site 6 - Burke Road Billabong, City of Boroondara, Camberwell, Victoria viewed 28 August 2008

Melbourne Water, (2008), Our Yarra, viewed 10 August 2008

McWilliam, G., (1986) Across the river to Kew in Boroondara, Self-published

Temby, I., (2003), Problems caused by the Bell Miner and the Noisy Miner viewed 31 October 2008

VandenBerg AHM (1999). Victoria 1:100000 Geology. Geological Survey of Victoria

Yarrahealing, (2008), Wurundjeri: Meeting the Kulin nation, 2008, viewed 15 September 2008


Appendix 1: Indigenous plant species within the Reserve

Appendix 2: Introduced plant species within the Reserve

Appendix 3: Rare and threatened flora

Appendix 4: Local fauna

Appendix 5: Fauna of regional significance

Appendix 1 - Indigenous plant species
Acacia dealbata Silver wattle
Alternanthera denticulata Lesser joyweed
Amyema quandang Grey mistletoe
Bursaria spinosa Sweet bursaria
Carex appressa Tall sedge
Coprosma quadrifida Prickly currant-bush
Elatine gratioloides Waterwort
Eleocharis acuta Common spikerush
Eucalyptus camaldulensis River red gum
Geranium sp. 5 Geranium sp.
Goodenia ovata Hop goodenia
Gynatrix pulchella Hemp bush
Juncus amabilis Gentle Juncus
Juncus subsecundus Finger rush
Lepidium pseudohyssopifolium Pepper-cress
Melaleuca ericifolia Swamp paperbark
Melicytus dentatus Tree violet
Microlaena stipoides Weeping grass
Muellerina eucalyptoides Creeping mistletoe
Ottelia ovalifolia Swamp lily
Oxalis exilis/perennans Soursob
Persicaria hydropiper Water pepper
Persicaria lapathifolia Pale knotweed
Persicaria prostrata Creeping knotweed
Persicaria subsessilis Bristly knotweed
Rapanea howittiana Muttonwood
Triglochin procera Water ribbons
Urtica incise Scrub nettle
The following two species were possibly planted at the site:
Acacia mearnsii Black wattle
Acacia melanoxylon Blackwood

Appendix 2: Introduced plant species
Acer negundo Box elder
Araujia sericifera Moth vine.
Also known as white bladder-flower,
cruel plant, kapok vine, milk vine, calico vine
Artemisia verlotiorum Chinese wormwood
Aster subulatus Bushy starwort
Atriplex prostrata  
Bromus catharticus Prairie grass
Calystegia silvatica Greater bindweed
Chrysanthemoides monilifera sbsp. rotundifolia Bitou bush
Cirsium vulgare Spear thistle
Conium maculatum Hemlock
Crataegus monogyna Hawthorn
Cynodon dactylon Couch grass
Cyperus eragrostis Umbrella sedge.
Also known as drain flatsedge, umbrella grass,
Victorian nutgrass
Dactylis glomerata Cocksfoot
Ehrharta erecta Panic veldt grass
Fallopia convolvulus Black bindweed.
Also known as climbing buckwheat,
knot bindweed, wild buckwheat
Foeniculum vulgare Fennel
Fumaria sp. Fumaria
Galium aparine Cleavers
Helminthotheca echioides Ox-tongue
Ligustrum lucidum Broad-leaved privet
Lonicera japonica Japanese honeysuckle
Lycium ferocissimum African boxthorn
Modiola caroliniana Red-flowered mallow
Nassella neesiana Chilean needle grass
Oxalis incarnate Pale wood-sorrel
Phalaris aquatica Phalaris
Phytolacca octandra Inkweed
Pinus radiata Radiata pine
Pittosporum undulatum Sweet pittosporum
Plantago lanceolata Ribwort, plantain, snake plantain
Plantago major Greater plantain
Polygonum aviculare Knotweed, wireweed, hogweed
Prunus cerasifera Purple-leaved plum, cherry plum
Ranunculus repens Creeping buttercup
Rorippa palustris Yellow cress
Rubus anglocandicans Blackberry
Rumex crispus Curled dock
Rumex obtusifolius Broad-leaf dock
Salix fragilis Crack willow
Salpichroa origanifolia Pampas lily-of-the-valley
Solanum americanum Glossy nightshade
Solanum nigrum Black nightshade
Solanum pseudocapsicum Madeira winter cherry
Sonchus oleraceus Common sowthistle
Tradescantia fluminensis Trad.
Also known as: wandering jew,
creeping christian, wandering creeper, water spider wort
Ulex europaeus Gorse
Verbena bonariensis Purple-top verbena
Zantedeschia aethiopica Arum lily

Appendix 3: Rare and threatened flora
The species listed in the table below were all observed in March 2005.
Scientific nameCommon NameStatus in MelbourneStatus in Boorondara
Amyema quandangGrey mistletoe Vulnerable
Carex appressa Tall sedge Endangered
Elatine gratioloidesWaterwortRare or threatenedVulnerable
Eleocharis acutaCommon spikerush Endangered
Geranium sp.Geranium sp. Endangered
Goodenia ovataHop goodenia Vulnerable
Gynatrix pulchellaHemp bush Endangered
Juncus subsecundusGentle juncus Vulnerable
Lepidium pseudohyssopifolium Pepper-cressRare or threatenedEndangered
Ottelia ovalifoliaSwamp lilly Rare or threatenedExtinct
Persicaria prostrata Creeping knotweed Rare or threatenedVulnerable
Persicaria subsessilisBristly knotweed Rare or threatenedSecure
Rapanea howittianaMuttonwoodRare or threatenedCritically Endangered
Urtica incisaScrub nettleRare or threatenedVulnerable

Appendix 4: Local fauna
The following list includes all fauna species recorded at the site. Asterisks (*) indicate introduced species and crosses (+) indicate that breeding was confirmed.

*Cabbage white
Common brown
Common grass-blue


*Carp (1979)
*Redfin (1979)


Common blue-tongued lizard
Tiger snake
Common froglet (1994)
+Victorian smooth Froglet
+Southern bullfrog (1994)
Striped marsh frog (1990)
+Spotted marsh frog (1994)
Southern brown tree frog


Common brushtail possum
Common ringtail possum
Common wombat
Eastern grey kangaroo
*Black rat
*Red fox

Pacific black duck
Little black cormorant
White-faced heron
Eurasian coot (1990)
*Spotted turtle-dove
Common bronzewing
Rainbow lorikeet
Eastern rosella
Superb fairy-wren
Spotted pardalote
White-browed scrubwren
Brown thornbill
Red wattlebird
Bell miner
Noisy miner
White-plumed honeyeater
Eastern spinebill
Eastern yellow robin
Grey shrike-thrush
Grey fantail
Grey butcherbird
Grey currawong
Bassian thrush (1997)
*Common blackbird
Kookaburra (2008)
Australian magpie (2008)
Appendix 5: Fauna of regional significance
Conservation Status
Common Name Status in Melbourne Status in Boroondara Last Recorded
Platypus Near Threatened Endangered 2005
Bassian thrush Near Threatened Occasional visitor 1997
Victorian smooth froglet   Endangered 2005
Southern bullfrog   Endangered 1994
Striped marsh frog  Endangered 1990
Spotted marsh frog  Endangered 1994
Southern brown tree frog   Endangered 2005
Common blue-tongued lizard   Endangered 2005
Spotted pardalote  Endangered 2005
Little black cormorant   Vulnerable 2005
White-faced heron  Vulnerable 2005
Eastern rosella  Vulnerable 2005
Superb fairy-wren  Vulnerable 2005
White-browed scrubwren   Vulnerable 2005
Eastern spinebill  Vulnerable 2005
Eastern yellow robin  Vulnerable 2005
Grey shrike-thrush  Vulnerable 2005
Grey fantail  Vulnerable 2005
Common bronzewing  Occasional Visitor 2005
Grey currawong  Occasional Visitor 2005